Thursday, January 7, 2010


5500 - 332 BCE

Pre-Dynastic Period 5500 - 3000 BCE
Early Dynastic period 2925 - 2575 BCE

Old Kingdom 2650 - 2134 BCE
The First Intermediate Period 2134 - 2040 BCE

Middle Kingdom 2030 - 1640 BCE
The Second Intermediate Period 1640 - 1550 BCE

New Kingdom 1550 - 1070 BCE
Third Intermediate Period 1070 – 712 BCE
Late Period 712 – 332 BCE

Ptolemaic Dynasty 305 - 30 BCE
(after Alexander the Great Conquered Egypt)
Roman domination 30 BCE - 392 CE (AD)

In 30 BC,
at the Battle of Actium, a battle fought out of jealousy and for leadership over the Roman Empire, Octavian, who would later be known as Emperor Augustus Caesar, defeated Marc Antony and Queen Cleopatra VII at Alexandria. During this battle, a fire started in the harbor and later burned the entire Library of Alexandria, the one source for all knowledge in the ancient world. There were no duplicates and so much knowledge was lost in this tragedy of which has never been recovered. Egypt then became a province of the Roman Empire.

Early Dynastic period 2925 - 2575 BCE

3000 - 2938 BCE

The first pharaoh of the first dynasty of Egypt.
Unified all of Egypt.
Trading barges and canal systems
1st tombs called

Old Kingdom 2650 - 2134 BCE

2667 - 2648 BCE

1st pyramid.

Step Pyramid at Saqqara, made from mud bricks
Architect (and priest):
1st pharaoh to be recognized as a god.
Mined copper and turquoise in Sinai Peninsula.
Pushed southern border to Aswan.

2613 - 2589 BCE

4th dynasty.
Married half sister to secure and preserve the holy, royal blood line.
Attacked and expanded Egypt into Nubia, Lybia and Sanai.

Red Pyramid near Dashur.

Partially Collapsed Pyramid at Meydum.

Bent Pyramid at Dashur.

2589 - 2566 BCE

Son of SNEFRU.
Had his likeness carved onto the lion head of the Sphinx.

Great Pyramid at Giza.

The Sphinx at Giza.
There is some evidence that suggests the Sphinx was created long before Khufu and that it was originally a lion and Khufu had his face carved onto the head of the Sphinx. The beard of the sphinx, that was dislodged by bandits in the 12th century, was recently discovered at the British Museum. The legend of the Sphinx was actually created by the greeks, much later, giving it history and legend: "What has 4 legs in the morning, 2 legs at noon and 3 legs in the evening," the Sphinx would ask of travelers. If they guessed incorrectly, they would be eaten. (The answer is "man").

2650 - 2480 BCE

Son of KHUFU.

North Pyramid (also called, the Khafre Pyramid) at Giza.

2532 - 2504 BCE

Son of KHAFRE.

Southern Pyramid (also called, the Menkaure Pyramid, quite a bit smaller than the other two) at Giza.

Middle Kingdom 2030 - 1640 BCE

1870 - 1831 BCE

Conquered the Kermins in Nubia.
Established Egypt's southern border.

The first military architecture with Super Forts. The largest of which, at Buhen, at 600' long, with multiple outer walls and a moat.

New Kingdom 1550 - 1070 BCE

1504 - 1492 BCE

First Pharaoh buried at the Valley of the Kings.

1479 - 1458 BCE

Queen Pharaoh.

Hatshepsut Mortuary Temple.
Architect (and lover): Selamut.


1479 - 1425 BCE

Expanded Egyptian Empire to its greatest size.

1352 - 1336 BCE

Changed his name to AKHENATEN, meaning servant of the god AKTEN, as his mother had brought him up in the AKTEN cult. He changed the national god to be AKTEN and moved the capital city from Thebes (later called Luxor) to a new, vacant location, in which he named Akkatatan (now called Amaria), believing this is where the god AKTEN lived. The city of 20,000 was rebuilt in just 2 years. This amazing feat was achieved with the necessary invention of standardized building blocks. They were small, easy to carry limestone blocks, similar to today's CMU's or cement blocks. He was assasinated for exhausting the national treasury on the rebuilding of the capital city. Upon his death, the capital returned to Thebes.
City of Akkatatan (also spelled: Akhetaten)
AKHENATEN was the father of King TUT.

1294 - 1279 BCE

Conquered Phoenicia and Palestine, capturing trade routes and ports, thus increasing the wealth of Egypt.

Hypostyle Hall at Karnak

Largest tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

RAMESSES the Great.
1279 - 1212 BCE

His wife, Nefertari, was considered the most beautiful woman throughout Egypt. Not to be confused with Nefertiti, a queen that lived almost a hundred years later and is considered to be the most beautiful woman in the world, but this is long before Helen of Troy, who also shares the same title.

Son of SETI I.
Had over 110 sons, and probably as many daughters.
RAMESSES fought and won many battles over the Hittites of Syria.

Tombs of RAMESSES and Nefertari at Abu Simbel.
The tombs are carved out of solid rock, nearly 200 feet into the cliff. The tomb honors RAMESSES as a god and represents Nefertari as the goddess HATHOR. The tombs were moved after Lake Naser was created by the Aswan Dam. On February 22 and October 22, the sun shines all the way back to the end of the tomb, onto the faces of the statues of AMUN, the supreme god, RAMESSES, as a god, and RA, the sun god,
possibly signifying the birth and death of RAMESSES.

Prolonged poor leadership and the strengthening of neighboring countries led to the eventual demise of Egyptian dominance in the region, many of whom would later rule portions of Egypt.


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